Origin of the Term “Smart Alec”

kramer pimpToday I found out the origin of the term “Smart Alec”.

It was once thought this term was simply generic and that Alec wasn’t actually a real person.  However, relatively recent research by various etymologists such as Professor Gerald Cohen, in his1985 work “Studies of Slang”, has shown, based on considerable newspaper article evidence, that “Alec” was actually very probably a real person, namely Alec Hoag.

Hoag was a pimp and a thief in New York City in the 1840s.  Partnered with his wife Melinda and another known as “French Jack”, they would rob his wife’s “customers” while she otherwise distracted them.

They started out by simply having his wife lead the victims into dark alleys where, at some point, she’d pick their pockets then embrace them and hold her hand out behind them where Hoag would be hidden within arm’s reach to grab the stolen goods.

Inevitably, some of these men would go to the police to report the theft.  To get around the problem of potential police snooping around, Hoag enlisted the help of a couple of these police officers for protection and split the stolen goods with them.

Hoag’s downfall came when he ran into some financial difficulties and ended up not giving the officers their fair share.

Initially, he got away with this by operating a “panel game” con.  How this worked was Melinda would bring the men back to her apartment.  Next, according to the editor of the Subterranean, George Wilkes, who spoke with Hoag in prison,

Melinda would make her victim lay his clothes, as he took them off, upon a chair at the head of the bed near the secret panel, and then take him to her arms and closely draw the curtains of the bed.  As soon as everything was right and the dupe not likely to heed outside noises, Melinda would give a cough, and the faithful Alec would slyly enter, rifle the pockets of every farthing or valuable thing, and finally disappear as mysteriously as he entered.

Sometime after that, Alec would bang on the door and Melinda would make out that he was her husband who had returned early from some trip.  The victims would hastily grab their clothes and escape through the window.

The police who Hoag was paying off soon discovered he was cheating them out of their share  with this new con and arrested Hoag and Melinda.  Hoag promptly escaped from prison, with the help of his brother, but was eventually recaptured.

Alec Hoag was then given the nickname “Smart Alec” by the police for being too smart for his own good.  The thought is that the police then used this term when dealing with other criminals who seemed a little too smart for their own good, often thinking of ways around giving police their payoffs: “Don’t be a Smart Alec”.

This term, as an expression, then took about 20 years to germinate and eventually found its way in print in 1865 and popular culture shortly thereafter.

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  • You might want to clarify that the wife was not named “French Jack” that was the name of his accomplice.
    “…with his wife Melinda and his accomplice French Jack…”

    From Jonathon Green’s CASSELL DICTIONARY OF SLANG:

    Smart alec/aleck_ n. (mid 19C+)(orig. US) an unpleasantly conceited, smug
    person (cf. ALEC; CLEVER DICK). (proper name _Alec_ Hoag, a celebrated New York City thief of 1840s, who, with his wife Melinda and his accomplice French Jack, specialized in the PANEL GAME; for a detailed account of Hoag and his carrer, _see_ Cohen (1985)).

    • Daven Hiskey

      @AllieC: Yep, thanks for catching that. I meant that, hence the “They” directly after, but worded it poorly. Fixed!

    • The root alektoro for rooster. Smart aleck = cocky. Cock=rooster.

  • And so a term is born from Police corruption.

  • The term isn’t “smart alec.” It’s “smart aleck.”

  • Why is picture used to illustrate the article of an 1840s pimp, Black? Racist much?

    • Daven Hiskey

      @Me: Michael Richards (the guy in the picture) is white. But why does it matter what color a person’s skin is? You might as well comment on his eye color. Racist much? 😉

      • Love the hypersensitive criticism of the pimp by “Me”. Gets even better since “Me” was wrong.Thank you, “Me”, for entertaining the rest of us with your candy @ss ignorance.

    • That’s Kramer from Seinfeld… lmfao. He’s not black either…

  • Great article by the way. I quite enjoy originations of phrases.

    I had thought it was about alec trebek lol

  • The reference to a rooster I felt might be more likely. Take your pick I guess.

    “The root alektoro for rooster. Smart aleck = cocky. Cock=rooster.”

    What language is alektoro… and is it used in it’s own language for a similar purpose… ie smart ass/cocky etc?

    The police nicknamed a criminal.. is a bit of a stretch..but there would likely be a written trail as evidence. for excample newspaper writing with this reference …maybe not directly related to Mr Hoag but a side reference in writing might exist …if it’s true.