Mantan Moreland: The Black Comedian Who Was Almost One of the Three Stooges

the-three-stooges-mantanThere’s a good chance you’ve never heard of Mantan Moreland. But, if you are lucky enough to have seen him in a film—any film—you’ll definitely remember him. Moreland’s comic timing manages to transcend the decades in films like King of the Zombies (1941), where he steals the show, saving what would otherwise be a completely forgettable (and by now, probably long-forgotten) comedy-horror flick. While changing attitudes about black roles in film may have hastened Moreland’s fall from popularity, he’s finally being rediscovered as the talented character actor and comedy genius that he was.

Had history unfolded just a little differently, Mantan Moreland would most likely have never become forgotten in the first place. In fact, he once came awfully close to being cast as one of the Three Stooges (more on that later). In an era when segregation was in full swing, the fact that he was strongly considered to be part of the internationally-known trio, let alone be the choice of Moe and Shemp Howard themselves, speaks to his considerable talent as a comedian.

Cutting his teeth on the brutally competitive vaudeville stage, Moreland honed his comedy skills doing several live shows a day. Vaudeville was a cutthroat business. With dozens of performers waiting in the wings, any act that faltered for even a moment would be yanked—if not booed—off the stage. Former vaudevillians like Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton, and Bob Hope owe their cinema stardom largely to the quick-thinking and high level of professionalism required to make it big onstage. It worked for Moreland, too. His talent as a comedian on what was then known as “the chitlin’ circuit”—the string of nightclubs and theaters deemed safe for black comedians during segregation—soon led to roles in movies.

Moreland’s earliest roles were in “race films,” made with black actors for black audiences. His first screen role was as a night watchman in a haunted pawn shop in That’s the Spirit (1933), followed by a small role as an angel in The Green Pastures (1936), a retelling of Biblical stories as black American folklore (Rex Ingram, Disney’s original choice for Uncle Remus, played “De Lawd”). Moreland was quickly moved up to supporting roles in all-black westerns like Harlem on the Prairie (1937) and Two-Gun Man from Harlem (1938), playing the comic sidekick to Herb Jeffries (better known as the Bronze Buckaroo, America’s first black singing cowboy).

Recognizing his talent, studios soon snapped him up to play comic relief roles in mainstream movies (in other words, with white casts), but his real break came when he was paired with Frankie Darro in a series of crime comedies. The two appeared in the films as porters, bellhops, or pages who stumble across murder cases (hijinks, of course, ensue). While Moreland’s performances are stereotypical of the era (he’s always the frightened one), the films represent a huge turning point on the part of the studio: Moreland and his white co-star are depicted as friends and equals. A high point of the series is when he and Darro recreate one of the bits that made Moreland a hit on the stage. The “indefinite talk” bit appears in Up in the Air (1940), and pays homage to the routine he developed with Ben Carter, in which the two would finish each other’s sentences. Like this:

Moreland: “I haven’t seen you since…”
Carter: “Longer than that!”
Moreland: “Last time I saw you, you lived over…”
Carter: “Oh I moved from there.”
Moreland: “Yeah?”
Carter: “Sure, I moved over to…”
Moreland: “How can you live in that neighborhood?”

The series came to an end when Frankie was drafted during World War II, but Monogram hung onto Moreland, recognizing him for the amazing talent he had. Perhaps intentionally, he was featured in some otherwise-lackluster films, injecting a healthy dose of humor where there would have been none. King of the Zombies (1941) is perhaps the best known, and nearly every single line spoken by Moreland is memorable, from “Move over, boys, I’m one of the gang now!” to “If there’s anything I wouldn’t want to be twice, zombies is both of them.” (You can watch the film here.)

Moreland was somewhat less valued at other studios, where he didn’t receive top billing, but his role in Universal’s The Strange Case of Dr. X (1942) caught the eye of Three Stooges cast member Shemp Howard. The two appeared together in a gambling scene, and Howard was impressed with Moreland’s comic timing. He suggested to brother Moe that Moreland would be the perfect replacement stooge, should the need ever arise.

Meanwhile, Moreland was cast as chauffeur Birmingham Brown in Monogram’s series of Charlie Chan films. While “chauffeur” certainly doesn’t sound like a memorable role, Moreland, as usual, made the character one of the most memorable parts of the series. In fact, he was the only actor to stay on board for the entire run, appearing in 15 of the 17 films. In two of the Charlie Chan films, Moreland got to reprise his indefinite talk bit with original vaudeville partner Ben Carter. Both The Scarlet Clue (1945) and Dark Alibi feature versions of the routine that made him famous, and the movies are worth a watch if just for those segments alone.

When the series ended in 1949, Moreland saw less and less work. Some attribute his disappearance to the decline of the B-movie in an era that was embracing television, but many historians and biographers think it had more to do with changing political attitudes. Black men as servants and chauffeurs were not seen as funny so much as demeaning. It didn’t help that Moreland’s shtick was to play the skittish, frightened man—another stereotype. On the other hand, his performances always seemed to transcend stereotype (and those who knew him said that the deep Southern accent and the expressions were true to how Moreland really was). His scared-out-of-his-wits characters are really not that different from the ones played by Bob Hope (see The Ghost Breakers, 1940). It’s easy to understand, though, why Moreland’s scared routine sits a little uncomfortably today, especially as he plays a servant to white men to boot—which is not something Bob Hope had to do.

Remember Moe Howard’s suggestion that Moreland would be a great Stooge if the need arose? The need did just that in 1955, with the death of Shemp Howard. At a time when Moreland could have used the work, the comedy team suddenly had need of someone with brilliant comic timing and plenty of experience. Moreland biographer Michael H. Price talked to Howard about just what a great idea it was:

Mantan was responsive, when Larry (Fine) and I talked the idea over with him. I mean, we’d all seen our better days by that time, but ol’ Moreland, – now there was a talent that could’ a’ invigorated the whole act! He had the word play – you ever heard him do that ‘anticipation’ routine, where he and one or another of his partners finished each other’s sentences? – and he had the physical shtick, the jive moves and double take receptions that would’ a’ filled in the gaps when Jerome (Curly) and Shemp had kept covered.

The studio had other ideas, though, according to Howard:

But of course Columbia (Pictures’ management) demanded a white guy, because they’d apparently been scared off of Mantan, and we ended up with that prissy damned Joe Besser, who was whatcha might call a pain…I’ve always thought what a great act the Stooges could’ a’ stayed for a while, if only we’d’ a’ gone with Mantan.

And that was the end of that. Having appeared in over 300 movies in his career, Moreland then only worked sporadically in the industry until his death in 1973 from cerebral brain hemorrhage. His last featured role was as a doomed delivery man in 1964’s weirdly wonderful comedy-horror film Spider Baby, and though the role was small, in true Mantan Moreland fashion, it is not easily forgettable. He played a few more blink-and-you’ll-miss-them roles, wrapping up his film career as a man almost run over by a motorcycle in the soft-core film The Young Nurses (1973). Moreland made a few TV appearances on shows like “Adam 12” and “Love, American Style” and released a few raunchy “party records” on the Laff label, including That Ain’t My Finger (his “mashed potatoes” punchline famously appears in the Beastie Boys song “B-Boys Makin’ With the Freak Freak”).

One thing Moreland never stopped doing was the indefinite talk routine that originally made him famous, performing it up until the last year of his life. Mel Watkins, a black comedy historian, noted that to black audiences, it was as well-known a classic as “Who’s on First?” was to white audiences. Once so famous that his films bore his real-life name (Mantan Runs for Mayor and Mantan Messes Up, 1946), the actor is certainly not a household name today. While he deserves rediscovery, one thing’s for sure: if Columbia Pictures hadn’t been opposed to having a black comedian in one of the most beloved comedy groups of all time, he wouldn’t have needed to be rediscovered at all, and his name would have been sealed in mainstream comedy history.

If you liked this article, you might also enjoy our new popular podcast, The BrainFood Show (iTunes, Spotify, Google Play Music, Feed), as well as:

Expand for References
Share the Knowledge! FacebooktwitterredditpinteresttumblrmailFacebooktwitterredditpinteresttumblrmail
Print Friendly, PDF & Email
Enjoy this article? Join over 50,000 Subscribers getting our FREE Daily Knowledge and Weekly Wrap newsletters:

Subscribe Me To:  | 


  • And if you recall, Billy Crystal reprised (stole?) Mantan’s routine during his SNL days.

  • I don’t believe this story sorry! Unless I heard the taped interview Moe would never trash Joe as the author states, it’s Bs. In early 1958 after their contract with Coliumbia Studios was over, Moe even asked Joe to to on the road with him and Larry. If you were to believe what that author wrote that never would have happened.

  • The problem with the new wave of internet bloggers and writers today in general they are all revisionist make it up as they go along types who instead of stating facts they inject their revisionist outcomes . Mantan was never considered to become a stooge and there is no factual evidence of this . He was one of the all time best comedic actors I have ever seen and is being rediscovered with Youtube playbacks of most of his movies over 40 years after his death. He is right up there in my opinion and better than comedians of that era including The Three Stooges , Marx Brothers, Ritz Brothers, Martin & Lewis etc . As for the racial stereotype stigma that is typical liberal BS. Shemp Howard played the same scared and ignorant types as a stooge as did many other comedians. Mantan if you must see one of his finest movies it is called Lucky Ghost 1942 with F.E. Miller as his sidekick I think it is Mantans definitive signature movie . He always stole the show and is being rediscovered by fans over 40 years after his death.

    • I saw all the Charley Chan movies with Birmingham Brown in them. Kind of ridiculous to say they needed another white guy when it was all about an alleged Chinese Detective with his Chinese sons. Of course in reality, Charley Chan was really Swedish but he did a good Chinese Detective bit. Detective from Honolulu that is. And after 65 years, the lines I remember and repeat most are: ” Great Googamooga let me out of here.” And, “Feet dont fail me now” As a child I loved those shows, and I enjoyed Mantan’s character very much. He would open his eyes wide and looked scared to death. It sounds ridiculous that his character would be taken as demeaning to blacks. Now Lightnin Jones was something else. His slow talk and movements may have been taken as demeaning to some people.

      • christopher harper

        Maybe this will educate you. In his OWN words!

        Moreland’s characters were nervous and jumpy, and ready to leap out of his skin at the slightest noise. He could pop his bulging eyes and had a way of making his entire body quake with teeth-chattering tremors. Moreland’s defining role was that of Birmingham Brown, the loyal chauffeur to master detective Charlie Chan in fifteen films made by Monogram Studios in the 1940s.

        In 1959, he told a Cleveland newspaper that he would “NEVER play another stereotype, regardless of what Hollywood offers.” He added, “The Negro, as a race, has come too far in the last few years for me to dash his hopes, dreams, and accomplishments against a celluloid wall, by making pictures that show him to be a slow-thinking, stupid dolt…Millions of people may have thought that my acting was comical, but I know now that it wasn’t always so funny to my own people.”

        There you have it. No “revision” no “liberal tricks”, etc. You should watch A Soldiers Story. The late, great Adolph Caesar said a line that was pure genius… The Black race cannot afford CLOWNS and BUFFOONS anymore. Thank God Mr. Moreland saw the light. Nothing wrong with comedy, but DIGNITY COMES FIRST!

  • What is fake news???

  • I am trying to find how much pay was martan moreland made while making the Charlie Chan movies ths

    • Do not know how much he made. But if you look at the opening credits he was ALWAYS given second billing behind Sidney Toler.

  • Joe Besser was not Moe and Larry’s first choice. Columbia did have the goods on them and because of contractual and racial issues from Columbia management, Joe Besser was ultimately cast as the third Stooge following Shemp’s death. Moe found Joe Besser difficult, and nothing they did with him felt as genuine and comedically right. He grieved for the days with his brothers Jerome (Curly) and Shemp….Moe wanted the spark of the Stooges to return and it was largely gone. Having read Moe’s autobiography of the Stooges, he and Larry did struggle with Joe and that partnership only lasted a short time….Joe would refuse to be slapped onscreen and it made things tense. The talent just wasn’t there for Joe and there was no real chemistry between them. Many of the shorts featuring Joe were just remakes of epsiodes with Curly laregely due to the stifled working relationship between them. Although he a part of Stooge history and legacy, Joe is by far the least revered or respected of the Stooge clan.

  • christopher harper

    yeah, because Black actors from the 30’s, 40’s and 50’s were NEVER portrayed as: being afraid of their own shadows (eyes bugged out as if a huge invisible hand is choking them), incompetent, subservient, unintelligent and always looking for “Boss” to either save them or explain something simple to them. Yeah, that’s the “liberals”, because that NEVER happened! while i’m at it may I add, it was the “liberals” who photo shopped all those violent episodes of the 1960’s. you know, the one’s where Black people just wanted to VOTE and be treated as CITIZENS. Instead they were: sprayed with fire hoses, bitten by police dogs, beaten and sometimes MURDERED by POLICE and racist citizens. Add to that homes, churches and businesses all blown up as well. But that didn’t happen, the “liberals” made it up. Whatever gets you thru the day guy.

  • The Moe Howard interview sounds SO bogus. Maybe Price spoke briefly to Moe on the phone? Maybe not. It sounds nothing like Moe: “and he had the physical shtick, the jive moves and double take receptions that would’ a’ filled in the gaps when Jerome (Curly) and Shemp had kept covered…” Moe referred to Curly as Curly, not Jerome. “Shtick and jive” sounds nothing like Moe in any radio or TV interview he did late in life.
    Larry’s brother Moe Feinberg, was similarly irritated when his co-author decided to “shtick and jive” his “Larry, Stooge in the Middle” memoir to spice it up. (Coincidentally, Drew Friedman, who authored the intro to Price’s book, drew the cover of the Feinberg book.)
    Really, the hipsters who love to darkly follow cult comedians AND “improve” on them by invented quotes and creepy drawings, aren’t helping things.