Nero Didn’t Fiddle While Rome Burned

Myth: Nero played music while Rome burned to the ground.

romeThe infamous phrase—“Nero fiddled while Rome burned”—has come to mean a person who is neglecting their duties, probably by doing something frivolous. Nero is painted as an emperor who didn’t care about his people, but it’s likely that he didn’t deserve such a bad reputation.  This is extremely similar to the tale of Marie Antoinette- supposedly saying “Let them eat cake!” when hearing of the starving masses. (Note: She never said this and popular history’s representation of Antoinette has been heavily influenced by the 18th century French who despised her mostly because she was Austrian and a prominent member of the aristocracy, rather than because of anything she actually did per se.  Read more on the sad life of Marie Antoinette here.)

Back to Nero, the story goes that a great fire swept through Rome in 64 AD, and Nero played his fiddle in a villa some miles away, ignoring his duty to the great city. In truth, there was such a fire, though its extent is unknown.  According to Tacitus, the fire lasted for six days and decimated Rome, with only four districts untouched (out of a total of fourteen).  He goes on to state that ten of the eleven districts that burned were heavily damaged, with three of those completely destroyed.  However, oddly, there is very little documented mention of the fire from those who actually lived through it.  The only Roman historian during that period who even mentioned it at all was Pliny the Elder, and even he only briefly referenced it in passing.

Had it been as widespread as Tacitus claimed, one would think the likes of Plutarch, Epictetus, or other such famed Roman historians who lived through the fire would have mentioned it.  And, indeed, we see that perhaps it wasn’t that great of a fire from the only other documented first hand account of the scope of the disaster- a letter from Seneca the Younger to Paul the Apostle, where he explicitly stated that only four blocks of insulae were burned (a type of apartment building), along with 132 private houses damaged (about 7% of the private houses in the city and .009% of the insulae).  Not anywhere close to as widespread as Tacitus later claimed, though Seneca did say the fire lasted six days, as Tacitus stated.

As to Nero’s reaction to the fire, the first and biggest flaw in the fiddling story is that the fiddle, or violin, didn’t actually exist in Nero’s time. Historians aren’t able to give an exact date for the invention of the violin, but the viol class of instruments to which the violin belongs wasn’t developed until at least the 11th century. Many agree that the violin itself wasn’t being played until around the 16th century. If Nero actually did play a stringed instrument—and there’s no evidence that he did, whether during the burning of Rome or otherwise—it was probably a lyre or cithara.

Okay, so some details can get muddled through history. Did Nero neglect Rome while it burned? Historians argue probably not. Reports do place Nero thirty-five miles away from Rome at the time of the fire, as he was staying in his villa at Antium. However, an account from Tacitus tells us that he returned to Rome immediately when word of the fire reached him in order to begin relief efforts. As the fire raged on, Nero even opened up his own gardens to provide a temporary home for those who were now homeless.  He also ordered the construction of emergency accommodation and cut the price of corn, as well as provided food directly, so that people could eat.  Besides this, he paid for much of these relief efforts out of his own pocket.

However, Tacitus also tells of the rumour that had spread among the masses: while the flames surged through the city, Nero stood on his private stage and sang about the destruction of Troy in a comparison of the two events. Whether or not the rumour had any evidence to back it up or was just something made up by the unhappy masses, we don’t know, but this and Suetonius’ account are the most likely source of the fiddle story we hear today. Unfortunately for Nero, at least in the context of this story, he did have a reputation for enjoying concerts and participating in music competitions, so the activity itself wasn’t entirely unlikely even if the timing of the act is highly questionable.

While Tacitus claims the singing story was a rumour, Suetonius wrote about it with conviction. However, the story could have been an attempt to further mar Nero’s name. Nero faced problems during his reign from the very start, when it was reported that his own mother poisoned his predecessor, Claudius. He was also blamed for the death of Claudius’ son Brittanicus, who was being urged to take his proper place as Emperor by overthrowing Nero. Numerous other deaths were thought to have been committed by Nero’s hand, including one of his wives and his own mother.

As such, Nero was painted as a man who was difficult for the masses to trust. No one knew how the fire started, and many Romans believed that he had started the fire that burned their city. (It likely started in shops containing flammable goods, and was probably an accident rather than any one person’s intentional act.)

With the mob out for blood, Nero was forced to turn to a scapegoat and blamed Christians for starting the fire. There were only a small number of Christians in Rome at the time and they were considered a strange religious sect, so they were an easy target. As Tacitus stated:

Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judæa, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all [Christians] who pleaded guilty [to the fire]; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.

Even finding someone to blame for the fire didn’t help Nero’s plea of innocence. In the wake of the fire, he built a palace on top of some of the land cleared by the flames, which people argued he had been planning from the start, though this is highly unlikely as the place he built the new palace was over a half mile away from where the fire started. In addition to a new palace, Nero did provide for the reconstruction of the city, but rebuilding stretched the limits of Rome’s treasury at the time. He was forced to devalue Roman currency, which wasn’t a popular move.

Nero ended up committing suicide—or at least, begging his secretary to kill him when he lost the nerve to do it himself—four years after the fire. Accounts of his life and of the time of the fire are highly contradictory. Further, Suetonius and Tacitus wrote their histories fifty years after Nero died, and Cassius Dio wrote his 150 years later. Many historians also think it likely that Nero was more popular with the people of Rome than he was with the senators, and as all three of the main sources were from the senatorial class, it’s likely they carry more than a little bias against him, not unlike happened with the popular history of Marie Antoinette. That being said, Tacitus did state that while Nero’s death was welcomed by senators, the lower classes mourned his passing.

So in the end, the implication that “Nero fiddled while Rome burned”—or played the lyre, sang a song, or neglected his duty in any way—is likely the result of anti-Nero propaganda and an attempt to tarnish his name. The morality of many of his actions during his reign is open to debate, but the fiddling, or playing music, story is almost certainly a myth.

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Bonus Facts:

  • Nero’s last words were supposedly, “Qualis artifex pereo,” or “What an artist dies in me.” He was certainly very interested in music—he even wrote songs that were performed by entertainers throughout the empire, though at first he only played for private audiences himself. The year of the fire, he began doing public performances to raise his popularity. Some ancient writers criticized this move, saying it was shameful for the emperor to demean himself in such a way.
  • Nero’s death arguably caused more problems than it solved, as it led to the “year of the four emperors” and civil war. Nero was the last of the Judo-Claudius line, making the next ruler open to debate. Nero was succeeded by Galbo, then Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian, who all ruled between 68-69. Vespasian finally became the founder of the Flavian Dynasty as he received no significant threats to his rule.
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  • “a letter from Seneca the Younger to Paul the Apostle”

    These letters between Seneca and Paul are almost universally considered to be forgeries.

    • Daven Hiskey

      @MarkS: Yep, I am aware of the controversy surrounding the letters, though it is only very recently that the idea that they were forgeries has gained a lot of steam. The earliest references of them (starting around the 3rd-4th century) seem to indicate they were around that time well accepted as a genuine exchange between Paul and Seneca. Given that they don’t really contain anything significant in terms of theology or historical significance, and it is very plausible Paul met Seneca while in Rome, and perhaps not surprising that Seneca may have been interested from a philosophical standpoint in what Paul was telling the masses, it seems somewhat plausible that the two might have exchanged letters. It also seems odd that someone should take the time to write such forgeries that don’t really say much. Not to say they are not forgeries, which they may well have been, just the whole thing seems odd. In the end, this wasn’t so much an article about whether those letters were real or not obviously, which would take a lengthy article of its own to discuss and I’m only familiar with them at this point, not an expert, so am not prepared to write such a thing, nor do I have any real stance at present on whether they were forgeries or not, as I haven’t extensively researched the topic yet to be able to form an opinion from. 🙂 Mainly we were just giving the only known possible first hand account of the scope of the fire, which described the fire at a much smaller scale than later documents describe, which seems more in-line with the fact that no Roman historians of the day thought the fire was worth mention. Had it destroyed most of Rome as was later stated, you’d think every single Roman historian who lived through it would have thought it worth a mention.

    • Thanks for your reply, Daven.

      The main problem with the letters is that the letters supposedly from Seneca are written in a very different style from Seneca’s other writings, and the letters supposedly from St Paul are written in a very different style from Paul’s other writings. There are serious issues with the contents, too.

      However, regardless of the contents, if Seneca and Paul had written to each other, and if Seneca had respect for Christianity, this would had added considerable credibility and prestige to Christianity, at a time when it really needed it. This provides an ample motive for forging them.

      If you want to look further into this, a good place to start is this thesis, available as a free PDF download.

      The Christian after-life of Seneca the younger: The first four hundred years

  • “He also ordered the construction of emergency accommodation and cut the price of corn”

    Didn’t Columbus bring corn to Europe ?

    • Daven Hiskey

      @dj1two3: Emily is referring to the British use of “corn” as in wheat or oats, essentially grain. Interestingly though, popcorn was made in such places as China, Sumatra, and India long before 1492. However, archeologists do think that popcorn was first popped in Mexico around at least 80,000 years ago.

  • Thoroughly interesting article.

    However, to my dismay, I note that the word “decimate” is again mutilated here. The word comes from the Roman practice of executing one of every 10 soldiers in a company as a disciplinary measure. Today it means “to reduce by one-tenth.” It is NOT to be confused as a synonym for “devastate.”

    • William Dickerson

      I know this is VERY old, 2 years at least, but still, I learned something. I knew decimate had a root meaning 10, but wasn’t sure of the exact reason or meaning as it’s been abused so often – even in schools. So I learned a lot just now. Not only the meaning or origin of decimate, but that there’s more myth than fact in what I was taught about Nero and Rome in school 40-50 years ago.
      (And they claim misinformation in schools is something brand new………..)
      This is a very good day, it’s Friday, and I’ve learned several things before 7 am!

  • Julio Claudian line, not Judo-Claudian!

  • On the one hand you discount Tacitus’ story regarding the size and destruction of the fire, and on the other hand you rely on Tacitus for the notion that Nero sprung into action to squelch the fire and even put people up in his garden. If the fire didn’t cause that much destruction how was it possible that it “stretched the limits of Rome’s treasury at the time.” Was Rome that poor of an Empire that rebuilding “7% of the private houses in the city and .009% of the insulae” “stretched the limits” of it’s treasury? I understand discovery the truth of story is difficult 2000 years later but there seem to be too many contradictions in this version.

  • Okay, so Nero couldn’t have played any instrument during The Great Fire of Rome because he was at his villa at Antium. He could, however, have given the order to start the fire.